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Dyslexia


Dyslexia is a congenital and developmental condition that causes neurological anomalies in the brain. It is a learning disability, characterised by difficulty reading and writing, in spite of normal intelligence or cognitive abilities.
Dyslexia

In This Article
Watch the dyslexia video Causes of dyslexia
Symptoms of dyslexia Diagnosis of dyslexia

                    

Did you know?
  • More than 2 million people in the UK are affected by dyslexia
  • 10% of the population show signs of dyslexia
  • If one parent has dyslexia there's a 50% chance their child will have it
  • Dyslexia was first identified in 1886
  • Dyslexia became a recognised medical condition in the 1980s


The exact cause of dyslexia is unclear but many experts believe the condition is hereditary meaning it runs in families. The condition changes the way the brain deals with information and certain genes inherited from parents may be to blame but how this passes on from generation to generation is unknown.


Dyslexia symptoms vary from person to person and the severity of the condition for individuals will be different too.

Young children can display signs of dyslexia before starting school. The possible symptoms may include:
  • Delayed speech development
  • Clumsiness or poor coordination
  • Mixing up words and phrases
  • Lack of understanding with words that rhyme
  • Difficulty dressing or tying shoes
Children of 5-7 years of age may display the following common symptoms of dyslexia:
  • Poor reading skills (except for simple words)
  • Difficulty with the alphabet
  • Poor writing skills
  • Inability to distinguish left from right
  • Poor concentration
  • Difficulty remembering common sequences (such as days in the week)
Older children aged 7-12 may display the following common dyslexia symptoms:
  • Falling behind at school compared to other children
  • Behavioural problems (often due to frustration)
  • Withdrawal
  • Inability to learn multiplication
  • Inability to follow simple instructions
Teenagers with dyslexia may display the following common dyslexia symptoms:
  • Poor organisational skills
  • Difficulty writing down instructions or copying work
  • Poor exam revision skills
  • Unable to cope with exam situations
  • Taking longer to do school work
  • Persistent misspelling of words
  • Severe difficulties learning another language
Many people reach adulthood without dyslexia being diagnosed and as such may display the following signs of the condition:
  • Avoidance of reading and writing
  • Concealing problems with reading, writing and spelling
  • Poor organisational skills
  • Lack of time management
  • Using memory and verbal skills rather than reading or writing


Children with dyslexia will develop coping strategies in order to disguise the condition but it becomes apparent when there is difficulty with reading or writing. Coping strategies can be positive such as working harder to compensate or developing long-term memory skills. Negative strategies may be displayed by the child pretending to be unintelligent to mask their inability to read or write correctly.

Diagnosis of dyslexia is carried out using screening and assessment methods. Screening involves asking the child a series of questions or testing their ability with grammar, words and sounds. While this process doesn't confirm dyslexia, it may indicate a high probability of being dyslexic.

Dyslexia assessment involves more rigorous testing of intellectual and learning ability by a healthcare specialist (such as an education psychologist).

Assessment methods used include: examining language development skills, vocabulary, memory and visual/auditory speed.


Therapies to consider
Craniosacral Therapy EFT Kinesiology
Reiki


 

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